Interstate Child Custody Issues
What is the law governing jurisdiction over an initial custody determination?
When a child custody case involves individuals in different states, the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (UCCJEA) determines jurisdiction.
To determine which state has proper jurisdiction to make an initial determination of child custody, the UCCJEA proceeds in the following order of priority:
- The state which is currently the “home state” of the child, or was the child’s home state within six months immediately before the commencement of child custody proceedings if the child is absent from the state, but a parent or person acting as a parent continues to live in the state;
- If no state has jurisdiction under #1, then jurisdiction is proper where the child and at least one parent have a significant connection with the state (other than mere presence), and substantial evidence concerning the custody determination is available in the state;
- If no state has jurisdiction under #1 or #2, jurisdiction is proper in any state having an appropriate connection with the child.
A state having jurisdiction under #1 or #2 may decline to exercise its jurisdiction, and transfer it to another state if it is more convenient for the parties, or if one of the parties has engaged in misconduct necessitating a change.
“Home state” is defined as the “state in which a child lived with a parent or a person acting as a parent for at least six consecutive months immediately before the commencement of a child-custody proceeding. In the case of a child less than six months of age, the term means the state in which the child lived from birth with any of the persons mentioned. A period of temporary absence of any of the mentioned persons is part of the period.”
Can jurisdiction change to another state?
Yes. The law governing ongoing jurisdiction is as follows:
Once a state court has made a custody determination, that state keeps jurisdiction over all matters concerning that child, unless:
- A court of the state with jurisdiction determines that the child or the child and a parent do not have a significant connection with the state, and evidence concerning the child’s custody determination is not available in the state;
- A court of the state with jurisdiction, or any other state, determines that the child and both parents (or acting parents) do not reside in the state any longer.
Can a custody determination be modified?
Once a custody determination has been made, a court of another state does not have authority to modify the determination unless the state with jurisdiction determines that it does not have jurisdiction as noted above, or any state court determines that the child, parents, and any acting parents do not reside in the state that currently has jurisdiction.
From the wide-ranging issues of divorce to the delicate nature of child support and child custody, McFarland Law Firm, P.C. focuses on a variety of issues and cases dealing directly and indirectly with matters of family law.